跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的

来源:全民跑步,转载已获授权

跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的 - 2019中国(青岛)国际养老产业与养老服务博览会_青岛老博会官网_老龄产业展

编译:全民跑步雷萌萌

稿件来源:runnersworld.com

如果“跑步会损害膝盖”是真的,那么我们必须有快速收缩的肌肉纤维,而且能够跑得比博尔特还快。我们的膝盖会感觉很好,事实也如此,因为你除了从那些可能善意但是无知的邻居、同事或亲戚那里道听途说外,没有证据能证明常规的跑步可以伤膝盖。

这并不意味着跑者就一定不会被跑步膝困扰。但是,很多跑者的膝盖问题都是身体其他部位的问题导致的,而且这些问题的大多数,可以通过一些小小的改变来解决。

这里有五项关于膝盖的问题,跑者应该牢记于心。

If we had a fast-twitch muscle fiberfor every time we’ve heard “running will ruin your knees,” we’d beable to out sprint Usain Bolt. And our knees would feel good while we did so,because despite what your potentially well-meaning but definitely ill-informedneighbors, co-workers, and relatives may have told you, there’s no evidencethat regular running damages knees.

That’s not to say that no runners’ kneesever bother them. But many knee problems in runners are the result of thingsgoing on elsewhere in the body, and most can be overcome with some simplechanges.

Here are five things all runners shouldknow about knees.

比起非跑者,跑者得膝关节炎的概率更小

Runners don’t get arthritis in their knees more often than nonrunners

跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的 - 2019中国(青岛)国际养老产业与养老服务博览会_青岛老博会官网_老龄产业展

这些是事实。如果说跑步与不跑步有什么区别的话,长期的研究发现,跑者患膝盖关节炎的可能性更小。有这样一个试验,人们追踪了跑者和非跑者18年的时间,发现20%的跑者患有关节炎,但是非跑者的患病率高达32%。另外,与散步者相比,跑者大概比散步者患有关节炎的概率少一半。在第二个试验中,拥有越高跑量的跑者,会拥有越低的患有关节炎的概率。

Those are the facts. Period. If anything,long-term studies have found that runners have less incidence of kneeosteoarthritis. One study that followed runners and nonrunners for 18 yearsfound that, while 20% of the runners developed arthritis during that time, 32%of the nonrunners did. A large study that looked at runners and walkers foundthat regular runners had roughly half the rate of arthritis as regular walkers.In that second study, the runners with the highest regular mileage had thelowest rate of arthritis.

以上所述是真的,与年龄无关

The above is true regardless of your age

跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的 - 2019中国(青岛)国际养老产业与养老服务博览会_青岛老博会官网_老龄产业展

跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的 - 2019中国(青岛)国际养老产业与养老服务博览会_青岛老博会官网_老龄产业展

一些医学专家称,包括膝盖在内的软骨的损耗,是衰老的一种正常表现。但是,没有证据证明跑步可以加速软骨损耗。事实上,不止一项研究发现,当人们有患有关节炎时,如果开始温和地跑步,他们的软骨的健康会得到改善,但是,同样人数的一组人,他们并不跑步,他们的软骨没有任何改善。

Some medical experts have said that lossof cartilage, including in the knees, is a natural part of aging. But there’sno evidence that running accelerates that loss. In fact, at least one studyfound that when people who were at risk of developing arthritis began amoderate running program, the health of their cartilage improved, while thecartilage of a group of similar people who didn’t start running didn’t improve.

补充剂不会让你的膝盖软骨重新生长

Supplements won’t re-grow knee cartilage

跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的 - 2019中国(青岛)国际养老产业与养老服务博览会_青岛老博会官网_老龄产业展

不像广告宣称的那样,没有膳食补充剂被证明可以让膝盖软骨增长。最受欢迎的补充剂,氨基葡萄糖,它的众多功能之一就是:能够通过增加膝盖连接处的润滑度,从而达到保护膝关节软骨的功能。一项专注于维生素D补充剂对于膝关节炎影响的研究表明,两年内,服不服用维生素D补充剂都有着同等程度的膝盖疼痛和膝盖软骨损耗。

Despite ad claims, no dietary supplementshave been proven to increase knee cartilage. The most popular such supplement,glucosamine, may help with knee osteoarthritis by protecting the articularcartilage, which, among other roles, helps to lubricate the knee joint. A studythat looked at vitamin D supplementation in people who had knee arthritis foundthat they had the same levels of pain and loss of cartilage after two years asdid people with arthritis who didn’t take vitamin D.

跑步膝通常是别的地方的问题引起的

Runner’s knee is usually caused by issues elsewhere

跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的 - 2019中国(青岛)国际养老产业与养老服务博览会_青岛老博会官网_老龄产业展

在跑者中,最常见的伤病就是跑步膝。临床上称为膝盖软骨软化症或者髌股疼痛症,它是膝盖骨里面的软骨炎症。运动医学专家们有一些有趣的共识:很多有跑步膝的人有一些共同的生物力学问题:虚弱的臀部和腿后肌肉,直接导致了腿部的不稳定性;无力的四头肌,导致跑步时膝盖骨不是很和谐;紧绷的蹄筋,把跑步时的冲击转移到了膝盖。

The most common knee injury among runnersis runner’s knee. Known clinically as chondromalacia patella or patellafemoralpain syndrome, it’s inflammation of the cartilage under your kneecap. There’sincreasing consensus among sports medicine professionals that many people withrunner’s knee have a few common biomechanical problems. These include weak hipsand glutes, which introduce instability further down the legs; weak quadriceps,which can make it difficult for the kneecap to track properly; and tighthamstrings, which shift some of running’s impact to the knees.

这些简单的方法可以保持你的膝盖健康

There are some simple ways to keep your knees happy

跑步伤膝盖?美国专家反驳:那是无知的人骗你的 - 2019中国(青岛)国际养老产业与养老服务博览会_青岛老博会官网_老龄产业展

就像上述所说,腿的某个部位的虚弱或者紧绷对于你的膝盖来说可能是个问题。那么,你就该针对性强化、改善。

超重会给膝盖造成极大的负担。美国运动医学院称,体重每增加一磅,膝盖将承受4磅的压力。跑者长时间跑步以致体重下降被认为是降低膝关节关节炎的关键原因。

多在平地上跑步来降低膝盖的扭力。

如果你有膝盖疼的病史,像是事故或运动损伤,你可以考虑尽量用前脚掌着地。

最新的研究表明,后脚跟落地的跑者的膝盖受到更多冲击力,而前脚掌着地,更多的冲击力会转移至他们脚踝。

As noted above, weakness and/or tightnesselsewhere in your legs can mean trouble for your knees. So get stronger.

Extra weight places tremendous strain onyour knees. The American College of Sports Medicine has said that eachadditional pound of body mass puts four extra pounds of stress on the knee.Running’s long-term effect on keeping weight lower is thought to be a keyreason why, as we saw above, runners might have less incidence of kneearthritis.

Run on level ground to lessen the torqueon your knees.

If you have a history of knee pain,including from accidents or other sports, consider switching to more of aforefoot strike. One recent study found that more impact force affects theknees in rearfoot strikers, while forefoot strikers have more impact forces intheir ankles.

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